Thursday, May 21, 2020

Anxiety and Anxiety Related Disorders - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2377 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/04/01 Category Psychology Essay Level High school Tags: Anxiety Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Anxiety. Anxiety is an evolutionarily adaptive response to danger that helps facilitate avoidance behavior, but it becomes maladaptive when it interferes with daily life[1]. Maladaptive anxiety is characterized by excessive and enduring fear and avoidance of threats (out of proportion to the threat or to nonexistent threats) [2]. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Anxiety and Anxiety Related Disorders" essay for you Create order Current scientific evidence indicates that anxiety arises from disruptions in the neural circuits used to process sensory stimuli and determine threat from those stimuli, leading to a state of high arousal and negative valence [3]. There are noticeable differences between fear and anxiety; fear responses are due to clear and perceived threats, with an immediate fight or flight response, and it subsides as the threat is removed. In comparison, anxiety responses are due to unknown threats, and they last longer than fear responses [4, 5]. Epidemiology. Anxiety related disorders are the most prevalent form of psychiatric illness in the world, and one of the leading causes of disability [6, 7]. One in four individuals is likely to have or be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in their lifetime [8], and the 12 month prevalence of anxiety disorders in Europe is 14% [6]. Disability is exacerbated by a relatively early age of onset in comparison to other psychiatric disorders [1, 9], along with a high likelihood symptom recurrence [1, 9, 10]. Anxiety is highly comorbid with other mental disorders which can complicate treatment and diagnosis [9, 11]. Anxiety disorders can disrupt cognitive development and social rules, and can reduce quality of life by causing problems including school failure, underachievement, unemployment or underemployment, and social problems [2, 12]. Diagnosis of Anxiety. The diagnostic criteria for individual anxiety disorders varies across disorder and diagnostic manual used, either the DSM-5 or ICD-10. Genetic markers, blood tests, and psychophysiological testing lack the sensitivity or specificity to be used for the diagnosis of these disorders, so a trained physician must rely on the clinical interview, screening questionnaire, and subjective judgement [2, 4]. Distinguishing anxiety from other medical conditions is a major challenge to the proper diagnosis of anxiety, as presence of other mental or physical conditions are commonly associated with anxiety[13, 14]. Treatment of anxiety. Behavioral therapies are the first line treatment, but pharmacological treatment can be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy[2, 15, 16]. Some of the pharmacological targets in anxiety include serotonergic, adrenergic, glutamatergic, neuropeptide, and endocannabinoid systems [15, 16]. Antidepressants, such as SSRIs or SNRIs, are the first line treatment for anxiety because of their efficacy, but they are associated with some adverse effects, including common side effects similar to symptoms of anxiety, discontinuation syndrome, and risk of increased suicidal ideation in youth [17]. Brain Regions Associated with Anxiety. Many regions, including amygdala (BLA and CeA), ventral hippocampus (vHPC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), medial dorsal thalamus (MdThal), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and several areas in the prefrontal cortex (cingulate cortex CingCx, prelimbic cortex PrL, infralimbic cortex IL) are important for anxiety[18-27]. Brain Region Actions Amygdala (BLA) identification and interpretation of threat as aversive or dangerous [3], positive or negative valence, predicts whether something will be threatening [28-30] Amygdala (CeA and BNST) directly invigorate anxiety response, influence threat appraisal likelihood [31] mPFC (Cingulate Cortex) regulator of anxiogenic activity: resistance to extinction of fear memories [32] PrL PFC fear memory acquisition and freezing response to cues [33-35] IL PFC Fear memory extinction [34, 36-40] NaC and VTA adjusting motivation for appetitive behaviors: cost/benefit analysis, providing reward for behaviors, suppression of anxiety behaviors when benefits are estimated to outweigh costs [41-46] Call to Action In the field of psychiatry, multiple challenges affect diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders. Diagnosis and treatment are only sought between 3 to 30 years after onset of symptoms, varying by country, with the median globally being 21 years[47]. This delay can be due to a lack of mechanistic diagnostic tests [4, 48], patients presenting with somatic symptoms that are complications of anxiety[48], underuse of systematic application diagnostic criteria [49] and that symptoms overlap considerably among different diagnoses while varying significantly among patients with the same diagnosis [50]. Previous research has found anxiety to be partially heritable, but exact replicable loci have yet to be found [2, 51, 52]. Brain based taxonomy is lacking [53], and efforts to find new therapeutic targets have languished due to the lack of a mechanistic understanding of these disorders [3]. The goal for research in the future, then, is to identify neural substrates of anxiety and develop clinically relevant predictors. Utilizing and understanding the electrophysiology of pathological anxiety will allow for better diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders. Rodent models in particular hold promise in understanding the conserved circuits that underlie anxiety [3] We postulated that a neural signature predicting anxiety related behavior exists at the network level. To test this hypothesis, we tested multiple forms of anxiogenic drug (Fluoxetine, FG-7142) in C57Bl/6J mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM), injected fluoxetine in these mice while in the homecage and conducted multi-circuit in vivo recordings from a subset of anxiety related regions including the prelimbic cortex (PrL_Cx), infralimbic cortex (IL_Cx), NAc, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), VTA, and VHip, then used machine learning to elucidate the anxiety related signature. Experimental Background Electrophysiology. Local field potentials (LFPs) are measurements of pooled brain activity of neurons within 1 mm of an implanted electrode, their inputs, and their outputs [54]. They are neural responses to experimental events and are analyzed by decomposing the spectrum into frequency bands[55]. LFPs have been used to study mental illnesses, including anxiety [citation needed]. [Note: will be further completed next semester when LFP work is conducted] Elevated Plus Maze as Measure of Mouse Anxiety. The elevated plus maze is a widely used behavioral assay for anxiety, that has been well validated across several measures. The elevated plus maze is assumed to be an ethological and unconditioned model that, unlike other anxiety tests, does not rely on noxious stimuli or conditioned responses [56-58]. Previously, the EPM has been used to assess drug effects, including anxiolytics and anxiogenics [59, 60], to determine brain site or mechanisms associated with fear and anxiety [61-67], as a measure indicative of altered emotionality in animals subjected to biochemical or gene manipulation [68-71] and subtypes of anxiety disorders [61]. Specifically, it has been used to measure the anxiogenic effects of FG-7142, and fluoxetine [69, 70, 72]. The maze has four arms, two open and two closed, all with open roofs. The arms are arranged in a plus shape with the same types of arms opposite each other [57, 60]. Anxiety is traditionally assessed by using the ratio of time spent on the open arms to time spent on the closed arms, and percentage of entries [56, 57, 69]. The aversive open arms are avoided, and freezing and defecation are increased in the open arms [59]. Behavior is typically recorded and scored for the first 5 minutes of the test, with time spent and entries made on the open and closed arms are measured, as well as avoidance behaviors and risk assessment [56, 61]. Open Field Test as Measure of Mouse Anxiety. The open field test is a simple measure of anxiety, ambulatory motion, and other behaviors. In measurement of anxiety, it is similar to the EPM in that it measures the innate avoidance of open spaces, which indicates anxiety. Mice who spend less time in the center of the open field test are coded as more anxious [73]. Beta Carboline FG-7142. The beta carboline class of molecules acts as an inverse agonists on the benzodiazepine site of GABA-A receptors[74]. Inverse agonists as a class are convulsant or pro-convulsant and have shown anxiogenic properties by self report [74]. FG-7142 (N-methyl-b-carboline-3-carboxamide) is a partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptors that causes anxiety in both humans[75] and mice[69], has kindling effects [74], upregulates adrenoreceptors, and decreases subsequent actions of GABA and beta carboline agonists [72]. The molecule is not selective, but does have higher affinity for the ? ±1 subunit-containing GABA-A receptor than other ? ± subunits [75, 76] . FG-7142 has several effects on the brain, including activating of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, related to attention and vigilance, and activation of mesolimbocortical dopamine output to the PFC leading to increased sensory drive output from the BLA [72, 77-79]. While FG-7142 is a convulsant as well as an anxiogenic, the dose required for anxiogenic purposes is lower than that required for convulsive purposes, allowing for usefulness for experimental induction of anxiety sans convulsions [69]. In the elevated plus maze, FG-7142 decreases the amount of time spent in open arms [69, 72], and its anxiogenic action may be mediated by the 3 subunit of the GABA-A receptor [72]. Fluoxetine. In clinical populations, chronic SSRI treatment is useful for the treatment of anxiety and depression, but has been shown to paradoxically increase anxiety and depression upon acute treatment [80, 81]. The treatment lag and anxiogenic effect of SSRIs in the acute phase may contribute to treatment noncompliance[81]. In preclinical animal research populations, namely mice and rats, fluoxetine, an SSRI that acts as a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor [71, 82-84], has been shown to increase anxiety related behaviors in the EPM[85-87], open field test [71], light/dark test [71], the free exploration test [85] and will also potentiate defensive behaviors[84]. In C57Bl/6J mice specifically, fluoxetine has been shown to be anxiogenic in the EPM at a concentration of 20 mg/kg [70, 88]. Methods Subjects Subjects were adult male C57BL/6J mice, purchased from Jackson Labs. The mice were housed in groups of 5 per cage, housed in a humidity and temperature controlled environment, with a standard 12h light/dark cycle where lights are on at 7 am. Water and food were available ad libitum. In the testing of FG-7142 and fluoxetine in the EPM, mice weighed between 20-35 g and were 9 weeks at the time of Elevated Plus Maze testing. All mice were nave to the EPM. In the testing of fluoxetine in the home cage, mice were implanted at 9 weeks, and were tested at 11 weeks in the home cage. Studies were conducted with approved protocols from Duke University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and were in accordance with the NIH guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Drugs FG-7142 was suspended in physiological (0.9%) saline containing 3% Tween 80 and injected i.p. at 10 mg/kg [69]. Fluoxetine HCl (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was dissolved in physiological saline and injected i.p. at 20mg/kg [70]. Apparatus The elevated plus maze apparatus has black plexiglass walls and flooring, with white tape on the floor of the arms. There are no walls on the open arms, but cm of tape is on the edges to prevent mice from falling off the arms. The maze is mounted in a plexiglass pedestal on the floor and is 40 cm tall with 305.08 cm arms; walls on closed arms are 15.25 cm high. General Procedure of the EPM All experiments were conducted during the mouse light phase. Mice were habituated to handling and injection for 7 days prior to testing, with either saline for 5 days and vehicle for 2 days (FG-7142) or saline for 7 days (Fluoxetine). Treatment conditions were randomly assigned, and the experimenter was blind to treatment. Mice were tested in order of cage and mouse number. Light intensity was low light (50 lux) for all experiments. Mice were brought up to the testing room at least one hour before testing to allow for acclimation to the testing environment. After injection, mice were either placed in a new cage (FG-7142) or in the home cage (Fluoxetine) and allowed to acclimate for 30 minutes. In the elevated plus maze, mice were individually placed on the central square, facing a closed arm, and freely allowed to explore for 10 minutes (FG-7142) or 5 minutes (Fluoxetine). Between each mouse, the apparatus was cleaned with Rescue wipes (Virox, Oakville ON). Fluoxetine Injections in Home Cage Mice were handled, injected with saline, and habituated to single housing for 30 minutes after injection for 7 days prior to testing. On the day of testing, mice were habituated to the room for 60 minutes prior to testing, connected to a headstage without anesthesia (Blackrock Microsystems, UT, USA), recorded 5 minutes of baseline LFP activity, injected with fluoxetine, then placed in a separate cage and singly housed. Recordings were initiated immediately, data was used after 30 minutes. Experiment was conducted under low light (50 lux) conditions. LFP data was collected using Cerebus system (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), animals were video recorded using Neuromotive software (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) and analyzed for time spent standing still using Ethovision XT 7.1 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, Netherlands). Open Field Test Open field testing was conducted immediately after completion of home cage fluoxetine recordings 1 hour after fluoxetine injection. Mice were placed in a 17.5 in long x 17.5 inch wide x 11.75 in high chamber for 5 minutes. LFP data was collected using Cerebus system (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), location of animals was recorded using Neuromotive software (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) and analyzed for time spent in the center using Ethovision XT 7.1 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, Netherlands). Neurophysiological data acquisition Neurophysiological data was acquired at 30kHz using the Cerebus acquisition system (Blackrock Microsystems, UT, USA). LFPs were low pass filtered at 250 Hz, and stored at 1000 Hz. Voltage was measured by comparing data from each wire against a wire within the same brain area that had a SNR 3:1. Electrode implantation surgery Mice were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane, placed in a stereotaxic device, and had screws implanted above the cerebellum and anterior cranium. Bundles were stereotaxically centered based on coordinates measured from bregma (AMY: -1.4mm and 40.86 AP, -2.9mm and 22.91 ML, -3.85 and 8.57 mm DV from the dura; NAc: 1.3 and 45.56 mm AP, -2.25 and 20.91 mm ML, -4.1 and 8.72 mm DV from the dura; PrL: 1.5 and 45.76 mm AP, 0 and 23.16mm ML, -2.25 and 10.57 mm DV from the dura; VTA: -3.4 and 40.86 mm AP, -.25 and 22.91 mm ML, -4.25 and 8.57 mm DV from the dura; VHip: -3.3 and 40.96 mm AP, -3 and 20.16 mm ML, -3.75 and 9.07 mm DV from the dura. Histology was performed on implantation sites after testing was complete to confirm recording sites used for analysis. Behavioral testing was performed when all animals had stable weights, at approximately 1.5 weeks after surgery. Statistical Analyses We ran the Shapiro Wilkes test for normality, the F test for equal variances, and two sample t tests for equal and unequal variances depending on the F test for equal variances. LFPs We used in vivo recording to quantify local field potentials (LFPs). LFP data was analyzed using non-negative matrix factorization, which is predictive of behavior and extrapolate across different subjects. It quantifies spectral power and coherence in certain frequency ranges to identify network level signatures.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Equality Does Not Mean Equity Gay Marriage Rights

Equality Does Not Mean Equity: Gay Marriage Rights Today, is known as a joyous or radiant matter to some but a disgraceful or even a sinful issue to others. Equality and equity are two important terms that are often confused and misused. Both of these terms are used to illustrate justice and creating fairness in societies today, but for some reason, these words are often misunderstood. Equality is known as another meaning for sameness and equal treatment. Equity is known as another meaning for fairness. Everyone gets what they need depending on he or she’s individual needs and history. For example, equity towards people of color in society have been consistently abused and mistreated during the 19th century and years before then throughout history. Back then, it was more difficult for colored people to succeed on the same level as white people. As a result of this history, colored people did not have the same access to opportunities as white people did back then. In today’s society, now homosexual men and women are having to deal with people who disagree with who the love and why. The issues and trials of equality and equity for homosexuals is starting to become a disagreement for majority of society. Therefore, for there to be both equality and and equity within the United states, equity must be established before equality can be reached and attained. In the 20th century, Boykin(1996) says that the debate dealing with r ace and sexual orientation would be mistakenlyShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage Should Be Legal1179 Words   |  5 PagesGAY MARRIAGES Some states such as Iowa legalized gay marriage through the action of judicial interpretation based on the state’s constitutional stipulations while other states such as Vermont legalized gay marriage through legislation initiatives. These cases demonstrate the government is the sole body that can dictate the validity of whatever is to be regarded as a marriage, and in this case gay marriage. The power to validate marriage is still observed among the private citizens, religious institutionsRead MoreBlack Lesbian And Gay Families7002 Words   |  29 Pages Although marriage equality continues to be in the legislative and media spotlight, little attention has been placed on the significance of legalizing same sex marriage for Black families. This article will discuss the available research on Black lesbian and gay families, highlighting both the strengths and challenges these families negotiate. Focusing on the resources Black lesbian and gay families provide to the Black community, such as foster parenting and adopting Black children, mentoringRead MoreThe American Revolution Of The United States1721 Words   |  7 Pagesthey were being ruled unjustly. To explain how they knew King George was treating them unfairly, the colonists agreed on certain ideals to be a guideline for how a government should be run. The ideals they decided upon where, Liberty, Democracy, Rights, Equality, and Opportunity. In order to take control of their government and rule with these ideals at the core of it, the colonists rebelled against England. This revo lution is now known as the American Revolution, and is the reason the US is an independentRead MoreGay Marriage Should Be Legal2286 Words   |  10 Pagesbranch that gets to interpret the Constitution. The Constitution is interpreted differently by every individual, so when a controversial subject such as gay marriage is brought to court, is the only thing that matters the justices own opinion? Gay marriage has been up for debate for centuries and gay couples are still working their way to equality. The monumental case which changed history is United States v Windsor and later in 2013, Hollingsworth v Perry. Why were the Supreme Court’s decisions onRead MoreWhy Gay Marriage Is Constitutional Essay2449 Words   |  10 Pagesday forward until death do us part†(Callaway). Marriage is defined as two people bond together legally under the protection of laws. Couples are able to express and establish their life long relationships officially, publicly, and permanently. Due t o the fact that homosexual relationships are increasingly more accepted by the public, gay marriage has become one of the most controversial topics throughout the US. The fundamental human right of marriage should not be limited to a man and a woman; homosexualRead MoreFeminism And The Fight For Same Sex Marriage772 Words   |  4 PagesFeminism absolutely means different things to different people. As I have read through many different articles, posts, and readings about feminism, it has struck me how differently feminism is approached. Among many blogs and websites that I read there were two that stood out to me; the first was a blog by a woman named Cristen Conger on the website Everyday Feminism and the other was a Tumblr site that had photos of women presenting lists of why they are against feminism. In this reflection I willRead MoreA New Era Of Freedom And Liberty1849 Words   |  8 PagesToday we are entering into a new era of freedom and liberty. With such stress on freedom, self-consciousness and civil rights, people are being more and more bold to think independently, critically, and even to question about things and values. It is beyond doubt that being open-minded is sometimes a sign of the progress of the era, and it is not bad that we are willing to reflect upon our traditions. But when questions and challenges come to some most sensitive and unquestionable thing deep downRead MoreA Humanist Perspective And A Biblical Perspective3024 Words   |  13 Pages2012, p. 228). Justice is an idea that has shaped the world and has been a foundation for many other ideas and ideals. Kuyper quotes that â€Å"†¦there is not a square inch in the whole domain of our human existence which Christ, who is sovereign over all, does not cry out ‘mine!’† (1998, p. 488). God is able t o cry out ‘mine’ because He ultimately gave His son as punishment for His people’s sins. God is a just God, and could not stand by and watch His people sin without doing something about it. This essayRead MoreThe Resistance Movement of Queer People of Color Essay2865 Words   |  12 Pagesare abused, harassed, and deprived of equal civil rights in social and economic conditions (Gossett). In response to the multiple levels of discrimination they face in today’s society, queer people of color have turned to the establishment and active participation of support organizations, resources, and policies to advocate for overall equality. Queer people of color, also known as QPOC, are individuals who identify as part of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer (LGBTQ) community, andRead MoreHow Does Fashion Represent the Changing Attitudes to the Gender Divide1899 Words   |  8 Pagesappearances. The 19th century witnessed a distinct shift in ideas respecting gender expectations, advancing from the traditional notion of male supremacy towards a more modern ideal of gender equity, the process was strenuously contested and by no means achieved as desired. Women did still not have the right to vote as they were considered the weaker sex and fashion evolved to accompany this view of sexuality and supremacy. Woman wore corsets and crinolines in order to change their body shape and

Overcoming Barriers to Change Free Essays

The research aims to identify barriers that exist in education on the way to changing students’ learning environments in a positive way. The literature review has revealed that current practices often demonstrate new opportunities willingly embraced by teachers. However, in many cases, teachers are not as susceptible to practices that threaten to have negative effect on their customary routines, in particular exemplified by collaborative teaching. We will write a custom essay sample on Overcoming Barriers to Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now Using teacher survey, the study will determine to what degree such reluctance can stand in the way of the teaching innovation. Introduction Teaching collaboration is an idea that has gained prominence in contemporary educational establishments. Although at first a really unusual practice, collaboration in teaching has been shown to deliver great benefits. For educators themselves, â€Å"collegiality breaks the isolation of the classroom and brings career rewards and daily satisfactions† (Inger, 1993). It also helps beginners and experienced professional learn from each other for improved results and relieves young teachers of the trial-and-error process they are usually immersed in. bringing teachers closer together in a coherent effort, collaborative teaching helps foster cooperation and friendliness between teachers. Collaboration can also go beyond the level of a single school, helping extend new methods to other areas. At the same time, collaboration is not always compatible with school culture and practices and character of an individual teacher; hence come barriers to collaborative teaching. A teacher can be resistant to collaboration in general, being averse to any form of joint efforts in the same classroom. On the other hand, the teacher’s attitude can embrace collaboration between vocational and academic teachers or those coming from other schools. Therefore, the research problem is as follows: What obstacles do teachers most often face on the path of innovation in their school curriculum that involves collaborative teaching? The study will be focused on teacher perceptions and aim to find material so as to substantiate improvements in collaborative practices. Literature Review Collaboration can occur at any stage of the educational process. Teaching can engage in joint preparation of materials for the classroom sessions or engage in team teaching, or â€Å"organizational and instructional arrangement in which two or more teachers work in the same classroom† (Price et al, 2000-2001). Thus, in special education teachers can use a variety of models including the resource room, itinerant, and consultation models (Price et al, 2000-2001). In the process of realizing collaboration models, teachers face barriers that have been categorized by Welch and Sheridan (1995) into four main groups: conceptual barriers, pragmatic barriers, attitudinal barriers, and professional barriers. Conceptual barriers are caused by differences in the definition of roles by different educators, their difference in the processing of material, approaches etc. When teachers face challenges in working out the exact schedule or joining resources for joint effort, this is described as a pragmatic barrier. Attitudinal barriers are the result of fear to try a new approach. Professional barriers arise when teachers cannot cooperate on effective methods of problem solving, lacking adequate skills of working together as a team. Teachers can benefit from the administration’s effort to introduce additional measures so as to reduce the possibility of conflict among teachers. For this purpose, it is necessary to introduce concrete rules and procedures that will define the boundaries between their roles and help them establish working relationships. In case of team teaching, â€Å"the problem is getting a balance between enough specificity in prescribing roles so that a bureaucratic rule book is not created† (Price et al, 2000-2001). Most researchers believe that conflict is unavoidable, and therefore strategies for coping with it should be worked out by the administration in advance. A lot depends on the organizational culture as school culture can either stimulate or defy the efforts of teachers to work together. Peterson (2002) identifies two types of culture: cooperative and toxic. Within toxic cultures, individuals are striving to work together for common goals. As a result, teachers can reach effective collaboration more easily than in other organizations. In toxic cultures, on the contrary, individual effort is frustrated because of the lack of common framework. In addition, organizational resources can also be a barrier to innovation that should be represented in teaching communities. Many schools lack adequate programs that can accommodate the participation of two or more teachers. There are even fewer resources available for attracting outside professionals that can participate in collaborative projects. This can serve as a motivator for teachers to desire the continuation of the routines currently present in education. Cooperation between academic and vocational teachers can be prevented by the organizational design of the academic environment in which â€Å"the social and organizational isolation of most vocational teachers is exacerbated by the physical separation and programmatic fragmentation in secondary schools† (Inger, 1993). The difference in their social status further contributes to the rising walls between these two groups of professionals. Since academic teachers generally have a higher status, they tend to marginalize their vocational colleagues, a situation that discourages cooperation. How to cite Overcoming Barriers to Change, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Tragedy of the Commons

The Tragedy of the Commons is an article about population problem resolution. In the first part of the article, Hardin talks about solutions and their context in todays and yesterdays world. He puts the argument of technical and non technical solutions in different contexts and weighs their suitability in different circumstances. Bentham’s rule of â€Å"the greatest good for the greatest number† is also discussed in the first few paragraphs where Hardin explains the two reasons why it cannot be realized. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Tragedy of the Commons specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He gives the first reason as a mathematical one i.e. two variables cannot be increased at the same time and the second reason as a biological one that dictates that for any life to proceed there must be energy to sustain it; it is not sufficient to do that for the human race with growing population. The writ er then tries to explain the phenomenon of ‘tragedy in commons’ using a simple example of pastoralists sharing a vast pasture. There would be an increase in the number of cattle up to the point when the cattle will start putting too much pressure on the pasture, and then there would be tragedy because each extra head would mean more pressure on the pasture which would eventually lead to conflict and even extinction (McVay 9). This system of selection, the writer explains, is used in many areas of our lives in instances where there are limited resources that are not restricted. A natural means of selection then occurs in the form of overcrowding, queues and so on naturally regulating these struggles and it is put that there is no space (Hardin 15). Hardin then goes on to relate these arguments to pollution and conscience. He brings out the fact that conscience can be used as at tool of regulation but warns that this appeals very differently between different individual s. Carefully looking at the article, Hardin tries to argue about the different means of self regulation. He focuses on general people regulation, pollution and even legislation. In my opinion Hardin simply wanted to bring out the different ways of regulation yet with a little touch of humor. He explains that even if a population does not necessarily plan on regulating itself, it is still bound to do so naturally in an order he refers to as the commons (Lloyd 82). Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He even refers to Charles Darwin as he explains these points although later in the article he drastically changes his views in a display of contrast in his writing. In his view, everything from politics to basic human processes like breeding can be regulated by as simple a process as appealing to the human conscience in the short term (Smith 428). There is a lot of contradiction in Hardinâ €™s article though; he goes ahead to warn that use of conscience may be appealing in the short term but may eventually be perceived differently by the people depending on their reflections and inner beliefs (Lack 29).The need for recognition and mutual agreement has also been brought out as necessary towards the end of the article. In conclusion, Hardin writes that perhaps a simple answer to these population problems is the use of need for necessity and mutual agreement. While accepting that mutual agreement does not mean that everyone would be most comfortable with the resolution. It is perhaps the best way to deal with population problems. The commons is only viable and agreeable in instances of very low populations with excess resources where competition and destruction is still many years away. The Commons system encourages wastage and irresponsibility even in small societies and should not be adopted in modern society. Works Cited Hardin, Garret.â€Å"Journal of Heredity. † Science 50(1959):15-20 Lack, Dave The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. England :Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954. Lloyd, Willie. Two Lectures on the Checks to Population. England: Oxford University Press, 1833.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Tragedy of the Commons specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McVay,Salome.† Scientific American.† Science13 (1966):5-20 Smith, Arnie. The Wealth of Nations. New York:NEW LIB, 1937 This essay on The Tragedy of the Commons was written and submitted by user Dull Swan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

How to Write a Persuasive Speech

How to Write a Persuasive Speech Here are some key points to consider when you need to know how to write a persuasive speech. First, RESEARCH – it is essential that you develop research with a critical eye, persuasion is rarely successfully when the information you gather is easily disproven by peer-reviewed sources or up-to-date results. Next, it is a contest – a persuasive speech has a primary objective – to prove that your viewpoint is the viewpoint that your audience should have – whether in defense of a new technology or in defense of some atrocity that you would not prefer to defend. You must persuade your audience into believing that your particular viewpoint is the right viewpoint. Most students will be challenged at some time during their academic career to write a persuasive speech for some subject that they do not particularly agree with –whether regarding the success of the Hitler regime, polluting the oceans, or even abortion; however, the goal is not to convince you that you should believe, the goal of the persuasive speech is to demonstrate the power of the spoken word and how to provide evidence in support of your particular assigned viewpoint. Nearly every subject ever to exist has two sides, and each side will be heard at some point or other. When you need to know how to write a persuasive speech, begin by reading argumentative articles from your school’s database on the topic. Next, while you are writing your persuasive speech try to consider what you would want to know to understand the topic well enough to pick sides – information is the key to persuasion. Provide the information, factually, from reliable sources that defend your points; however, have defenses against the opposite points handy as well.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Culture Hearths and Diffusion Around the World

Culture Hearths and Diffusion Around the World Culture is generally referred to as a certain groups particular way of life. This includes the social meanings of various aspects of life such as race, ethnicity, values, languages, religions, and clothing styles. Though many distinct cultures are prevalent around the world today, those that are the most dominant have origins in one of a few areas called culture hearths. These are the heartlands of various cultures and, historically, there are seven main locations from which the most dominant cultural ideas have spread. Early Culture Hearth Locations The seven original culture hearths are: The Nile River ValleyThe Indus River ValleyThe Wei-Huang ValleyThe Ganges River ValleyMesopotamiaMesoamericaWest Africa These regions are considered culture hearths because such things as religion, the use of iron tools and weapons, highly organized social structures, and the development agriculture started and spread from these areas. In terms of religion, for example, the area around Mecca is considered the culture hearth for the Islamic religion and the area from which Muslims initially traveled to convert people to Islam. The spread of tools, social structures, and agriculture spread in a similar manner from the culture hearths. Culture Regions Also important to the development of early culture centers are culture regions. These are areas that contain dominant cultural elements. Though not everyone in the culture region has the same culture traits, they are often influenced by it in some way. Within this system, there are four components of influence: The Core -Â   the heart of the area and shows the most strongly expressed culture traits. It is usually the most heavily populated and, in the case of religion, features the most famous religious landmarks.The Domain - surrounds the Core and, though it has its own cultural values, it is still strongly influenced by the Core.The Sphere - surrounds the Domain.The Outlier - surrounds the Sphere. Cultural Diffusion Cultural diffusion is the term used to describe the spread of cultural ideas from the Core (in the case of culture regions) and the culture hearth. There are three methods of cultural diffusion. The first is called direct diffusion and occurs when two distinct cultures are very close together. Over time, direct contact between the two leads to an intermingling of the cultures. Historically this occurred through trade, intermarriage, and sometimes warfare because members of the various cultures interacted with each other for long periods. An example today would be the similar interest in soccer in some areas of the United States and Mexico. Forced diffusion or expansion diffusion is the second method of cultural diffusion and takes place when one culture defeats another and forces its beliefs and customs onto the conquered people. An example here would be when the Spanish took over lands in the Americas and later forced the original inhabitants to convert to Roman Catholicism in the 16th and 17th Centuries. The term ethnocentrism is often applied to forced diffusion because it refers to the idea of looking at the world only from ones own cultural vantage point. As a result, people participating in this form of diffusion often believe that their cultural beliefs are superior to those of other groups and, in turn, force their ideas upon those they conquer. In addition, cultural imperialism is usually placed into the category of forced diffusion as it is the practice of actively promoting cultural characteristics such as language, food, religion, etc., of one nation in another. This practice is normally within forced diffusion because frequently occurs through military or economic force. The final form of cultural diffusion is indirect diffusion. This type happens when cultural ideas are spread through a middleman or even another culture. An example here would be the popularity of Italian food throughout North America. Technology, mass media, and the internet are both playing a huge role in promoting this type of cultural diffusion around the world today. Modern Culture Hearths and Cultural Diffusion Because cultures develop over time, new dominant areas of dominant culture have done so as well. Todays modern culture hearths are places such as the United States and world cities like London and Tokyo. Areas such as these are considered modern culture hearths because of the prevalence of their cultural aspects now present throughout much of the world. Take for instance the popularity of sushi in Los Angeles, California, and Vancouver, British Columbia or the presence of Starbucks in places like France, Germany, Moscow, and even in Chinas Forbidden City. Direct diffusion has certainly played a role in this new spread of cultural values and products, and people are now moving around frequently because of todays ease of travel. Physical barriers such as mountain ranges also no longer hinder peoples movement and the resultant spread of cultural ideas. It is indirect diffusion, though, which has had the largest impact on the spread of ideas from places like the United States to the rest of the world. The internet and advertising through the many forms of mass media have allowed people worldwide to see what is popular in the U.S. and as a result, blue jeans and Coca-Cola products can be found even in remote Himalayan villages. However cultural diffusion occurs now or in the future, it has happened many times throughout history and will continue to do so as new areas grow in power and pass on their cultural traits to the world. The ease of travel and modern technology will only aid in speeding up the process of modern cultural diffusion.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Relationship between Stock Market Prices and Macroeconomic Variables Essay

Relationship between Stock Market Prices and Macroeconomic Variables - Essay Example This is an indication that the indexes will rely majorly on the stock prices of the major companies in the capital market. Therefore most financial experts like relying on this index as it is closer to representing the real market. According to Madura (2008, pg 347), the index is calculated by considering the stock price of five hundred biggest companies in the market. It explains that the companies are selected based on their market capitalization. To understand this dynamic relation the relation between the stock price and the variables in the macro economy, a clear and incisive analysis of the effects of these variables on the financial markets is required. This paper examines some of the relationships between the stock prices and market indices and the variables of the macroeconomic environment within economies of countries like the United States and England. Â  The GDP of a nation covers all the products and services produced in a single financial year. In Berezina (2012) opinion, it covers the entire products, from the smallest item to the largest possible item and services purchased by the consumers in this economy. It notes that investors pay keen attention to indicators of sustainable growth in the GDP of an economy to make decisions on investment. When the report shows that there is growth in GDP, many investors will be attracted to the economy. This translates to higher stock prices as investors rush to acquire stakes in companies within these economies. In the absence of growth, the investor confidence is low and the stock prices are likely to slump. This is usually reflected in the performance of the index of the market. Analysts believe that the performance of a market over a financial year will reflect the overall performance in GDP. For instance, Madura (2008) explains that economic factors that affect the stock prices includ e indicators like GDP (Madura 2008, pg 270).