Monday, August 24, 2020

Study from Home 9 Internet Courses to Study Psychology Online

Study from Home 9 Internet Courses to Study Psychology Online Study from Home: 9 Internet Courses to Study Psychology Online Now and again, you don’t comprehend what you need to do until you’re effectively out there in the working scene. Abruptly you understand that you don’t get individuals. Furthermore, you need to manage them consistently. That’s when you choose you need to contemplate brain science on the web. That way, you can keep on working while at the same time figuring out how to oversee tranquil connections with the individuals around you every day. Also, you can even make the ways for some new vocation open doors during the procedure. We think it’s an extraordinary thought as well. That’s why we’ve arranged this rundown of the best nine spots to examine brain research on the web. Penn State University. You have the alternative of a Bachelor of Life Science in Psychology or a Bachelor of Science with a Business Option. The subsequent track sets you up for professions, for example, business, HR, or medicinal services while the first is a progressively conventional readiness to turn into an affirmed advocate or specialist. Arizona State University. The online Psychology program at ASU is a piece of their New College of Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, so your coursework will be associated with different orders like human studies and political theory. Washington State University. The WSU Global Campus offers its Bachelor of Science certificate in Psychology through customary undergrad coursework which can be finished altogether on the web. Courses are educated by profoundly gifted and devoted teachers. Northeastern University. This school has a strong scholarly notoriety and an amazing 96% understudy consistency standard. Classes are thorough and spread general Psychology notwithstanding zones of extraordinary interests. The University of Massachusetts. This program procures good grades for adaptability, permitting you to structure your coursework around a timetable that addresses your issues. You can even take a quickened track to finish your degree sooner. Bellevue University. With one of the most moderate online degree programs in the country, Bellevue is an incredible alternative if you’re on a limited spending plan. It offers a decent decision of a B.A. or then again B.S. degree in Psychology, the two of which can be earned completely on the web. Focal Washington University. The school offers a 45-credit BA Psychology major to understudies who live outside the neighborhood. The major can be joined with a minor or an extra major in some different territories to gain a degree. It is most appropriate for the individuals who need to utilize their Psychology studies to supplement their profession in a related field, for example, business or social work. The University of Florida. One of the pioneers of online instruction, UFL has each help set up to enable far off understudies to succeed. One of the highlights that separates it is the arrangement of a one-on-one counselor to enable every understudy to adjust his/her obligations. Since time the board can immediately turn into a gigantic obstruction when you start your online investigations, this advantage ought not be ignored. Notwithstanding center classes and general Psychology prerequisites, understudies likewise take lab science classes to construct their examination aptitudes. Southern New Hampshire University. Reasonableness and certifiable occupation abilities are the qualities of online projects at SNHU. The calendar is exceptionally adaptable and coursework can be gotten to every minute of every day. Educators are specialists in the field. With the assistance of one of these five-star, adaptable online colleges, you’ll be something beyond an easy chair therapist in a matter of seconds.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Espionage In Wwii Essay Example For Students

Undercover work In Wwii Essay A considerable lot of us can recall playing youth games when we were more youthful. One of my undisputed top choices was find the stowaway. My preferred piece of the game was the point at which I was covering up and attempted to watch where the searcher looked while the person looked. Obviously I could have been gotten, yet it wasnt a serious deal at that point. What might occur however in the event that the searcher didnt know who he was searching for, yet realized somebody was covering up? How might he approach finding the individual? Further more what amount more could the individual achieve on the off chance that they were concealing directly before them, however the searcher didn't have the foggiest idea? Well it might sound somewhat off, yet that was essentially the round of undercover work. Spies would attempt to disguise themselves by social affair data simultaneously. During times of war it was basic to keep your developments, plans, and innovation mystery with the goal that foes couldn't be arranged or be one-stride ahead. Thusly spies would be a powerful on results of wars. One of the wars that the USA required surveillance help was in WWII. In addition to the fact that they needed to get data have counter knowledge to get mysteries far from Germany and their partners. Reconnaissance helped the US during WWII in the thrashing of Germany and their partners. Spies during WWII were expected to give the premise to an exact appraisal of different countries expectations and military abilities. Richelson, 103 In such a war a fruitful amazement assault could leave a casualty stunned and prepared for a knockout blow. 103 That implied it was basic for the USA to prevent secret activities from telling their moves and having their covert agents enlighten them regarding the arranged assaults of the Axis Powers. This would assist the USA with pulling off basic ambushes on Germany, for example, D-Day. Be that as it may, before the start of the finish of the war came numerous different impediments to be overwhelmed by the US. Toward the start of the war all the significant warriors had a spot in code breaking foundations, all of which would encounter touchy development during the war. 173 These offices would then proceed to give basic data during the war to give data expected to battle the Axis. One of the most significant requirements for reconnaissance was in the decoding of the ENIGMA. 176 This was utilized to code and interpret German messages sent and got among authorities and such. 176 It was exceptionally difficult to translate the ENIGMA in view of the manner in which it was set up. 176 What made it so hard to unravel was the procedure by which a letter in a unique message was changed into an alternate one for the transmitted message. 176 The procedure in question, in addition to other things, three engines in each machine that were looked over a lot of five. 176 Each of them had twenty-six settings, and a plugboard, which associated the console letters to the lampboard letters. 176 For instance the first run through the L key was squeezed a B may illuminate, but since the rotors turned further sections of L on the board would not create another B but instead different letters. 176 US insight alongside help from different nations was in the long run ready to make a c opy machine that would help them in translating messages. 177 Without assistance from secret activities in this occurrence the US and their partners would be helpless to obscure assaults and developments of armed forces without getting an opportunity to plan for it. Here to the utilization of American Espionage was apparent in the battle against its oppressors. Without appropriate translating of messages the fights could have been adjusted for the side of the Axis. One specific occurrence in which the US utilized knowledge to increase a favorable position when going to be assaulted was the skirmish of Midway. The US captured an encoded message from a Japanese Admiral and uncovered the date wherein the assaults were booked. O’Toole, 388 Therefore the US had the option to have a team hanging tight for the Japanese when they showed up. 389 It was said that Midway denoted the defining moment of the war for the pacific. 389 Again the utilization of Espionage gave immense outcomes to American’s all through the war with the Axis. Another significance of surveillance in the war was that the Axis powers didn’t realize that the Allies captured their interchanges. 392 Also, the British caught numerous messages that were given to the US too. 392 The understanding they happened upon to share insight was known as the BRUSA. 392 This really helped consolidate the secret activities to utilize staff alongside innovation of one another along with giving security to the tasks. 392 Again the knowledge organizations of the USA helped them in winning the war by joining endeavors with their partners. The Sequel to The Great Gatsby EssayThroughout a wide range of different fights the US had data on different military developments of the Axis in view of the portion of there data with the British. O’Toole, 392 British insight had some data the US didn't have against the Axis which demonstrated extremely valuable against their adversaries. 393 British knowledge was the fate very useful to the US all through the universal war and they assistant keep on giving there secret activities data to them too. This boded for a more prominent progression in surveillance in light of the fact that every one of the nations best joined for extraordinary prospects in that field. 395 Again, when USA insight ran into some difficulty they keep on assisting with their endeavors in winning the war by sharing and getting data from the British. Maybe the best commitments of the surveillance in the USA were the point at which the attack on D-Day occurred. An arrangement at long last emerged after numerous long periods of conspiring. Richelson, 154 It was called JEDBURGH. 154 The arrangement fundamentally took numerous three kept an eye on groups that would invade the region once the attack started and began to assemble knowledge, while others connected up with the masquisards. 154 They at that point kept on recounting German military developments, translate blocked messages and advised planes where to drop the weapons that were expected to overturn the German protection plans. 154 Additional damage tasks constrained Germans to impart by radio and they got simpler to capture and interpret. 155 Espionage was expected to make this stupendous attack a triumph for the Allies. During the war, the covert operatives proceeded there stowing away, while the Germans started to look for them. Americans came out with the upper end in the war. Undercover work arranged safeguards, win fights, and caution other associated forces of assaults of the Axis. On all records it appears that the USA couldn't have won the war without the assistance of their Espionage. Regardless of whether it be translating messages, recording military developments, or finding different government operatives, American surveillance assumed a significant job in the destruction of Germany and their partners during World War II. American Espionage confronted the threats that a trooper looked in fight and didn't down when their nation required them, regardless of whether it implied biting the dust to leave well enough alone. BibliographyBIBLIOGRAPHYRichelson, Jeffrey. A Century of Spies Intelligence in the Twentieth Century. Oxford University Press, 1995. O’Toole, G. J. A. Fair Treachery A History of U.S. Knowledge, Espionage, and Covert Action From the American Revolution to the CIA. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1991. Volkman, Ernest. Reconnaissance The best Spy Operations of the twentieth Century. John Wiley; Sons, Inc., 1995. Johnson, Loch K. Mystery Agencies. Yale University, 1996. History Essays

Friday, July 17, 2020

How to Write a Business Continuity Plan

How to Write a Business Continuity Plan Except for time-bound enterprises, or business ventures that are started with the intention of terminating operations and liquidating the business at the end of a year or two, businesses are established with a long-term outlook.They would want their business to earn profits, and to continue operating profitably for an indefinite, but long period of time. When drawing up their business plans, they see their business continuing to exist and operate in the many years to come. © | BsWeiThus, they make every decision with continuity of the business in mind, while taking into account the possible effects of unexpected events that may lead to disruptions and interruptions in business operations.INTRODUCTION TO BUSINESS CONTINUITYIf we are to take the phrase “business continuity” for its surface value, the most obvious meaning would be the ability of the business or enterprise to continue operating as a going concern for a very long time. But the term actually means more than what the words literally mean.The International Organization for Standardization, in ISO 22300, defined “business continuity” as the capability of an organization to continue the delivery of its products or services, at acceptable predefined levels, following a disruptive incident. It implies the responsibility of the business owners and management for the business in ensuring that it stays afloat and “on course” despite any obstacles or stumbling blocks it e ncounters along the way. This responsibility is incorporated into the greater management process of the business, and what is also referred to as “Business Continuity Management”or BCM.The Business Continuity Institute hit the nail right on the head when it described business continuity to be about “building and improving resilience in the business”. Organizational resilience means that the business can weather any storm and withstand any hits, and still remain operational, productive and profitable. Being resilient means that the business is still able to recover and grow, bigger and stronger than ever.BCM is clearly described by the ISO to provide a framework for building organizational resilience, which will allow the organization to respond accordingly, in a way that protects the business, its reputation, and all other stakeholders. As a management process, BCM involves several key activities:Identification and analysis of key products and services of the businessIdentif ication and analysis of the most urgent activities and processes of the businessIdentification of potential threats, and their impacts to business operationsDevising of plans and strategies for quick and effective recovery from any disruption, and the continuation of business operationsBusiness Continuity PlanningIn recognition of the reality of the economic and business landscape being unpredictable and volatile, businesses are now taking a lot of precautions to ensure that their operations will still stand a chance against unexpected disruptions. We usually hear of these precautions in the form of disaster recovery planning, which is primarily focused on the restoration of a firm’s IT infrastructure and IT operations. This view is rather limited, when you look at the bigger picture, since a business and its operations are more than just its IT infrastructure.Thus, more attention is put on business continuity planning (BCP), which puts the company in a proactive position in plann ing how to ensure that it will still be able to deliver its critical products and services safely and smoothly, while meeting its legal, regulatory, and other obligations.We can probably enumerate more than a dozen reasons why businesses should create and maintain BCP initiatives but, at the end of the day, there is only one ultimate goal or purpose for it, and that is to help ensure that the organization, business or company has the required resources, information, and capabilities to deal with emergencies and similar unexpected events, particularly their aftermath.Benefits of Business Continuity PlanningYou will probably be able to appreciate BCP even more if you have a clearer idea of what the business can gain from it.BCP improves public perception and acceptance of the company. By displaying a proactive attitude and demonstrating the initiative to be well-prepared, customers and the general public will have a favorable and positive impression of the organization. This will lead to a certain level of trust, which is likely to convert them into loyal, buying, customers.BCP will boost employee’s morale and command their loyalty to the company. Employees are inclined to seek stability in the organization they belong to or the company that employs them, and a solid BCP is one way for management to give them the assurance that they are looking for. It will also give them pride in their work and motivate them to increase their productivity as members of the organization.BCP enhances the relationship of the business with its shareholders and other stakeholders. Shareholders will trust the company enough to encourage them to keep investing in the company, and partners will have no reason to stop working and collaborating with the business if they know that every effort to be prepared for the unexpected is made.BCP improves the overall efficiency of the organization. In the event that a crisis does arise, resulting to a disruption in operations, having a solid BC P will allow the company to respond quickly and appropriately, keeping losses and costs to a minimum because there is already a plan in place.Threats to Business ContinuityRisks are inherent in businesses, and the risk of being faced with potential disasters and disruptive emergencies is one of them. What are some examples of these potential risks or threats?Natural disasters (force majeure, or “acts of God”), such as hurricanes or typhoons, storm surges or tsunamis, floods, earthquakes, bushfires, blizzards, sandstormsMan-made disasters with environmental repercussions, such as oil spills, hazardous materials spills, pollution, improper disposal of chemical and other industrial wastesAccidents brought about by fortuitous events, such as factory fires and similar incidents in the workplaceFailure of utility and other similar service providers to deliver their services, such as when power and energy providers shut down, water services are interrupted, and communication lines go o ut of orderResults of sabotage and similar crimes (with the intention of putting the business at risk), such as arson,Cybersecurity attacks, with the information system of the business falling prey to hacker and other similar intrusive activitiesAll these threats must be taken seriously by companies, considering their various effects or impacts when they result in the disruption of business operations. Some of the most likely effects are:Lost revenues and profitsWhen a retail store does not open for a week, the potential income that it usually earns in a one-week period is gone. Similarly, when a manufacturing plant is unable to operate even for a couple of days, the company will not be able to produce the average output of finished goods for distribution. Reduced finished goods inventory means reduced number of products to be sold, which will ultimately result to reduced sales and revenues.What the company is looking at is a profit level that is much lower than their usual level of earnings. Of course, if profitability gets a major hit, this will also have adverse effects on business growth strategies.Higher costs and expensesBusiness disruptions usually lead to the company spending more on incidental expenses in order to do some damage control. For example, if the disruption is caused by a blizzard leading to the closure of manufacturing facilities, there is a high chance that the facilities have been damaged, and will require some major repairs.Salvaging remaining equipment and machinery will also entail spending on transportation and hauling services. Incidentally, if the factory workers are paid on a monthly basis instead of on an output basis, they will still be paid their regular compensation rates. This, on top of the lost revenue, will further cause a drop in the profits of the business.In a study of mid-sized companies that suffered a major disaster and had no contingency planning in place, it was revealed that, on average, their downtime cost amount ed to $70,000 per hour. For small businesses, this is catastrophic.Loss of customersWhen their usual source of a specific product or service becomes unavailable, or unable to deliver their goods, customers will naturally look elsewhere for other sources. Even the most loyal customers may be swayed out of their loyalties if the business fails to rise to the occasion.Soon, the business will be unable to do anything except watch helplessly as its customers shift to the competition while it is still in the middle of figuring out how to deal with the fallout of the crisis that caused the interruption of business operations.Drop in business reputationThe reputation of the business will be on the verge of ruin. The moment it is unable to deliver the products and services that it promised, the trust levels of customers, stakeholders and other industry players for the company will suffer greatly. Lending institutions will think twice before granting any loans. Other businesses will have appr ehensions about continuing any partnership they have with the company, and they may even consider severing any ties they have with that business. This will definitely make recovery more difficult for the business, even long after the crisis has passed.The worst case scenario for businesses without BCP is the permanent end of operations. According to Agility Recovery’s Paul Sullivan, 80% of companies that have no plans whatsoever and were subsequently hit with a crisis or major disaster had to call it a day without having gone past 18 months of operations. 50% of companies that experienced inaccessibility of their business data for at least 10 days filed for bankruptcy right after.In the BCM lifecycle, the first stage is all about policy and program management, which is essentially the phase for planning the business continuity program of the business. In the succeeding discussion, we will focus on the Business Continuity Plan â€" what it is, what it is for, and how to write it.[sl ideshare id=39582108doc=businesscontinuityoverviewslideshare-140926170330-phpapp02w=640h=330]THE BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANThe Business Continuity Plan, which we will refer to from here on as “The Plan”, is the documentation of the outputs or results of a company’s BCP, presenting the processes and strategies that aim to help the company minimize, if not eliminate, the negative impact of disruptions to its business operations.The Plan has two components:Plans: These plans refer to the arrangements, measures, tactics and policies designed to ensure continuity of business operations, so that critical products and services are still delivered to customers.Resources: The second component refers to the resources or assets that are necessary for recovery measures, thereby supporting business continuity. These resources often include manpower or personnel, information, facilities, machinery and equipment, physical security tools, legal support, and funding.STEPS IN DEVELOPING A BUSINES S CONTINUITY PLANBefore you can get down to writing The Plan, there are several steps that must be performed.Step 1: Identify the scope of The Plan.As in most business planning processes, the first thing that must be done is to define the scope and objectives of the plan being made. In this case, it is the Business Continuity Plan.In addition, there is also a need to define the assumptions that will prevail in the conduct of BCP. It is also during this phase that budgeting is conducted, with the initial program budget taking into consideration the expenses that may be incurred in the process of developing the plan. These include costs of research, trainings and seminars, and other services sought in the process of moving the plan along.Step 2: Form your business continuity team.There is a need to establish a governance structure within the BCP in order for management to have order and control in its conduct. This implies care and prudence in choosing the people who will be assigned the task of planning for the continuity of the business.This involves identification of the key roles in the team, and their functions or roles and responsibilities. In addition, the qualifications for each role should also be identified, in order to justify the choice of personnel to fill the roles within the team. Lines of authority and accountability, as well as management succession, should also be defined clearly.The usual composition of a typical BCP team includes:BCP senior or executive manager â€" He is the overall leader of the committee, and the major link between top management and the BCP team.Program Coordinator â€" His responsibility includes BCP budgeting and budget implementation and monitoring, development of BCP policies, and coordination of BCP activities, such as the conduct of BIA, quality assurance, staffing, and training of BCP team members. In short, he is the team leader.Information officer â€" He will be responsible in ensuring the smooth and steady flow, a s well as access to and retrieval of data to be used in BCP.Representatives from the various business units or divisions of the company â€" They are excellent sources of input and relevant information, and will also aid in the analysis of BCP data. Usually, there is a representative for every critical process or function, as well as support processes or functions.There is no limit to how many people should comprise the business continuity team or committee. A team could have only five people on board, or it could have as much as 20 or even 30 members. The number of people and the size of the team will largely depend on the nature of the business and the size and scale of its operations.Step 3: Conduct a Business Impact Analysis (BIA)Conducting a BIA is crucial since its results will be the major input in business continuity planning. Through BIA, the team will be able to predict or forecast the potential impacts or consequences of business operations. It will also aid the team in ga thering information that will be helpful when it comes to developing strategies that can be adopted by the company for its recovery from the crisis.Briefly, let us take a look at the core concerns of BIA:Key business areas, or the core operations of the business;Functions and processes of the business that are considered critical and/or time-sensitive;The resources required to ensure the continuity of these key business areas and critical processes and functions;The dependencies (and interdependencies) between and among the business areas and functions or processes;The acceptable or tolerable downtimes for each critical process or functionThe BIA will facilitate the prioritization of critical processes and functions (or critical products and services) of the company, so management will have a clearer idea on which areas need more resource allocation in case of an emergency. Usually, estimates and approximations are made with respect to financial variables, such as lost revenues, add itional costs, and other possible losses.Step 4: Strategizing and PlanningBased on the results of BIA, the team will then identify response and recovery strategies and plans to address the effects of the disruption, and present them in detail. It is in this phase where the team will provide details on the arrangements and measures that the company will undertake in order to mitigate threats and risks.For every critical function, process, service, or product, there should be corresponding continuity responses, measures or plans. Cost estimates should also be included. That is how detailed this phase should be.It should also talk about the readiness procedures that must be implemented, and how they will be implemented.Step 5: Compilation and DocumentationThis involves the writing of the Business Continuity Plan. Usually, there will be a first draft, since the succeeding steps involve testing the recovery plans and strategies, making adjustments and re-testing until such time that The Plan can be finalized.Also, it is important to note that BCP is an ongoing process. That means that The Plan must be tested frequently, and updated when necessary. Thus, The Plan is subject to changes, as applicable.Step 6: Implementation and TestingThe prevention and mitigation strategies formulated in Step 4 will now be implemented. This involves communication of the plan to all members of the organization, making them aware of their part in it. This involves training them on their roles if the event does happen. External stakeholders should also be made aware of the plan.The emergency response and recovery strategies will undergo testing, mostly through drills and scenario exercises that will require the participation of the concerned employees or members of the organization. Through testing, the business continuity team will be able to assess whether the plan will be effective or not. This is their opportunity to make the necessary adjustments and corrections.Testing and evaluat ion must be done periodically in order to take into account the ever-changing nature of businesses.Step 7: Adjustments and ImprovementsThe program may need to be adjusted due to the following:Evaluation and testing of the strategies may reveal that they are ineffective or inefficientThere may be deficiencies in the strategiesSome roles and responsibilities are vague and need clarificationChange in the roles and members of the business continuity teamIntroduction or occurrence of new or additional factors or circumstances, such as new equipment, opening of a new branch, relocation of operations, and new technology or system that modified critical processes.Since testing and evaluations are done periodically, there is an equal chance that the program has to be adjusted several times. It follows that the Business Continuity Plan will have to be rewritten to accommodate or reflect these adjustments.WRITING THE BUSINESS CONTINUITY PLANAfter performing the first three steps mentioned abov e, you are now ready to compile and document your business continuity planning activities in the Business Continuity Plan, modifying it for finalization purposes after testing and audit. Basically, everything that you performed in BCM will be documented in The Plan.Depending on the nature of the business, The Plan may have special features or additional parts. But generally, a Business Continuity Plan has the following sections:1. Program AdministrationUsually, this comes in the form of a Mission Statement which contains the following:The purpose of the plan, stated to benefit and involve the organization as a whole and not in partsThe scope, goals and objectives of the company’s BCPThe methods of evaluation that will be employedThe budget, specifically the anticipated and estimated costs that will be requiredOther resource requirementsAnticipated timeline of the conduct of BCPCompliance with any relevant legal and/or regulatory requirements2. GovernanceThis will detail the format ion of the business continuity team. Emphasis must be placed on the following information:The team members, their titles or designations, as well as their roles and responsibilities as members of the BCP team. Include their contact details.The lines of authority and succession of management, clearly demonstrating the delegation of authority and accountabilities.External entities or organizations that the business will interact with in the conduct of BCP. They include vendors, distributors, contractors, suppliers, and the like.Presentation of this section is reinforced by including an organizational or functional chart showing the lines and interconnections among the members of the team and external parties.3. Business Impact AnalysisDocument all the results of the BIA conducted by the team. Again, be as detailed as you possibly can.Results of any prior risk assessment procedures undertaken by the company should be included, as these will figure greatly in the conduct of BIA. By iden tifying the vulnerabilities of the company and their potential impact on its operations, the company will be able to determine its state of readiness and responsiveness in the event a disaster does happen that may cause disruptions.Other points that must be highlighted in this section are:Recovery Time Objectives (RTO) for business processes and functions, in case of disruption. This is basically the estimate of the maximum duration or length of time that disrupted processes and functions must be recovered or restored, before the continuity of the business is seriously threatened.Recovery Point Objective (RPO) for data restoration. This is the maximum length of time in which data in a company’s IT infrastructure or database might be lost or inaccessible because of an emergency or disaster. When system designers and analysts are called in to work on recovery or restoration of data, they will know how much time they are given to accomplish that.4. Business continuity strategies and requirementsAll the plans, measures, procedures and arrangements, as well as the resources and other requirements to implement them, must be documented in this section, in great detail.Take note that BCM is an ongoing process, which means planning strategies that will be employed before, during, and after a disruptive event.Examples are detailed strategies and resource requirements for:Implementation and execution of prevention and control strategies, or the activities that will be undertaken before the event takes place. Examples are:Installing physical protection facilities, systems and measures, such as emergency generators and storm shutters.Diversification of resource providers and expanding the supply chain, maybe by looking for other alternative suppliers and vendors so as to not be entirely dependent on a single source.Setting up off-site facilities as backups or alternates for servers, storage and warehousing, among other thingsImplementation and execution of emergency resp onse strategies, or the activities during the event. Examples of these emergency responses are:Set up of an incident response command centerEvacuation proceduresInformation dissemination to the media and the general publicDelivery of notifications and status updates to suppliers, vendors, distributors and customersImplementation and execution of recovery strategies, or activities after the event has taken place and efforts are made to resume operations. Example strategies are:Relocation or transfer of operations to another geographical areaAlternative methods or processes, such as manual workarounds, or temporary methods employed or used by the company to facilitate the continuation of critical processes and functions in the absence of normal systems and personnelData restoration, especially when the company’s information technology units received the brunt of the disruption5. Training, Testing and EvaluationWith respect to Training, the Plan should include details of the followin g:Training program or curriculum that will be followed by the members of the business continuity team and the other members of the organization.Timeline or training schedule of the team members and other personnelWhen evaluating the planned strategies, the following should be in The Plan as well:Testing procedures for the recovery and response strategiesTesting schedule or timeline for the conduct of the proceduresForms and documents that will be used in the testing and evaluationDescription and the finer details on the exercises that will be conducted6. Program MaintenanceThe Plan will also serve as a historical record or reference to trace how the business continuity management process went about. Thus, when writing about updates or adjustments made, there should be a reference on the deficiencies or issues that were addressed by the adjustments or corrective actions.The Business Continuity Plan is essentially the Bible of the company during times of crisis or when it has to deal with the fallout of a disaster. Usually, people have trouble thinking straight during such major events and upheavals, and The Plan will serve as the guide that will steer the company in the right direction.When writing a Business Continuity Plan, accuracy is of high importance, from the personal information of all individuals and entities involved to their roles and responsibilities. It should also remain relevant at all times, and that can be achieved by making sure that it is kept up to date. Finally, when writing The Plan, do it in such a way that it can be easily understood by everyone who reads it, from senior management to the lowliest employee in the organization. It won’t be of any use if trying to make sense of what it written on it becomes a hardship.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Anxiety and Anxiety Related Disorders - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 8 Words: 2377 Downloads: 5 Date added: 2019/04/01 Category Psychology Essay Level High school Tags: Anxiety Essay Did you like this example? Introduction Anxiety. Anxiety is an evolutionarily adaptive response to danger that helps facilitate avoidance behavior, but it becomes maladaptive when it interferes with daily life[1]. Maladaptive anxiety is characterized by excessive and enduring fear and avoidance of threats (out of proportion to the threat or to nonexistent threats) [2]. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Anxiety and Anxiety Related Disorders" essay for you Create order Current scientific evidence indicates that anxiety arises from disruptions in the neural circuits used to process sensory stimuli and determine threat from those stimuli, leading to a state of high arousal and negative valence [3]. There are noticeable differences between fear and anxiety; fear responses are due to clear and perceived threats, with an immediate fight or flight response, and it subsides as the threat is removed. In comparison, anxiety responses are due to unknown threats, and they last longer than fear responses [4, 5]. Epidemiology. Anxiety related disorders are the most prevalent form of psychiatric illness in the world, and one of the leading causes of disability [6, 7]. One in four individuals is likely to have or be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder in their lifetime [8], and the 12 month prevalence of anxiety disorders in Europe is 14% [6]. Disability is exacerbated by a relatively early age of onset in comparison to other psychiatric disorders [1, 9], along with a high likelihood symptom recurrence [1, 9, 10]. Anxiety is highly comorbid with other mental disorders which can complicate treatment and diagnosis [9, 11]. Anxiety disorders can disrupt cognitive development and social rules, and can reduce quality of life by causing problems including school failure, underachievement, unemployment or underemployment, and social problems [2, 12]. Diagnosis of Anxiety. The diagnostic criteria for individual anxiety disorders varies across disorder and diagnostic manual used, either the DSM-5 or ICD-10. Genetic markers, blood tests, and psychophysiological testing lack the sensitivity or specificity to be used for the diagnosis of these disorders, so a trained physician must rely on the clinical interview, screening questionnaire, and subjective judgement [2, 4]. Distinguishing anxiety from other medical conditions is a major challenge to the proper diagnosis of anxiety, as presence of other mental or physical conditions are commonly associated with anxiety[13, 14]. Treatment of anxiety. Behavioral therapies are the first line treatment, but pharmacological treatment can be used as an alternative or adjunctive therapy[2, 15, 16]. Some of the pharmacological targets in anxiety include serotonergic, adrenergic, glutamatergic, neuropeptide, and endocannabinoid systems [15, 16]. Antidepressants, such as SSRIs or SNRIs, are the first line treatment for anxiety because of their efficacy, but they are associated with some adverse effects, including common side effects similar to symptoms of anxiety, discontinuation syndrome, and risk of increased suicidal ideation in youth [17]. Brain Regions Associated with Anxiety. Many regions, including amygdala (BLA and CeA), ventral hippocampus (vHPC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), medial dorsal thalamus (MdThal), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and several areas in the prefrontal cortex (cingulate cortex CingCx, prelimbic cortex PrL, infralimbic cortex IL) are important for anxiety[18-27]. Brain Region Actions Amygdala (BLA) identification and interpretation of threat as aversive or dangerous [3], positive or negative valence, predicts whether something will be threatening [28-30] Amygdala (CeA and BNST) directly invigorate anxiety response, influence threat appraisal likelihood [31] mPFC (Cingulate Cortex) regulator of anxiogenic activity: resistance to extinction of fear memories [32] PrL PFC fear memory acquisition and freezing response to cues [33-35] IL PFC Fear memory extinction [34, 36-40] NaC and VTA adjusting motivation for appetitive behaviors: cost/benefit analysis, providing reward for behaviors, suppression of anxiety behaviors when benefits are estimated to outweigh costs [41-46] Call to Action In the field of psychiatry, multiple challenges affect diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders. Diagnosis and treatment are only sought between 3 to 30 years after onset of symptoms, varying by country, with the median globally being 21 years[47]. This delay can be due to a lack of mechanistic diagnostic tests [4, 48], patients presenting with somatic symptoms that are complications of anxiety[48], underuse of systematic application diagnostic criteria [49] and that symptoms overlap considerably among different diagnoses while varying significantly among patients with the same diagnosis [50]. Previous research has found anxiety to be partially heritable, but exact replicable loci have yet to be found [2, 51, 52]. Brain based taxonomy is lacking [53], and efforts to find new therapeutic targets have languished due to the lack of a mechanistic understanding of these disorders [3]. The goal for research in the future, then, is to identify neural substrates of anxiety and develop clinically relevant predictors. Utilizing and understanding the electrophysiology of pathological anxiety will allow for better diagnosis and treatment of anxiety disorders. Rodent models in particular hold promise in understanding the conserved circuits that underlie anxiety [3] We postulated that a neural signature predicting anxiety related behavior exists at the network level. To test this hypothesis, we tested multiple forms of anxiogenic drug (Fluoxetine, FG-7142) in C57Bl/6J mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM), injected fluoxetine in these mice while in the homecage and conducted multi-circuit in vivo recordings from a subset of anxiety related regions including the prelimbic cortex (PrL_Cx), infralimbic cortex (IL_Cx), NAc, central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), VTA, and VHip, then used machine learning to elucidate the anxiety related signature. Experimental Background Electrophysiology. Local field potentials (LFPs) are measurements of pooled brain activity of neurons within 1 mm of an implanted electrode, their inputs, and their outputs [54]. They are neural responses to experimental events and are analyzed by decomposing the spectrum into frequency bands[55]. LFPs have been used to study mental illnesses, including anxiety [citation needed]. [Note: will be further completed next semester when LFP work is conducted] Elevated Plus Maze as Measure of Mouse Anxiety. The elevated plus maze is a widely used behavioral assay for anxiety, that has been well validated across several measures. The elevated plus maze is assumed to be an ethological and unconditioned model that, unlike other anxiety tests, does not rely on noxious stimuli or conditioned responses [56-58]. Previously, the EPM has been used to assess drug effects, including anxiolytics and anxiogenics [59, 60], to determine brain site or mechanisms associated with fear and anxiety [61-67], as a measure indicative of altered emotionality in animals subjected to biochemical or gene manipulation [68-71] and subtypes of anxiety disorders [61]. Specifically, it has been used to measure the anxiogenic effects of FG-7142, and fluoxetine [69, 70, 72]. The maze has four arms, two open and two closed, all with open roofs. The arms are arranged in a plus shape with the same types of arms opposite each other [57, 60]. Anxiety is traditionally assessed by using the ratio of time spent on the open arms to time spent on the closed arms, and percentage of entries [56, 57, 69]. The aversive open arms are avoided, and freezing and defecation are increased in the open arms [59]. Behavior is typically recorded and scored for the first 5 minutes of the test, with time spent and entries made on the open and closed arms are measured, as well as avoidance behaviors and risk assessment [56, 61]. Open Field Test as Measure of Mouse Anxiety. The open field test is a simple measure of anxiety, ambulatory motion, and other behaviors. In measurement of anxiety, it is similar to the EPM in that it measures the innate avoidance of open spaces, which indicates anxiety. Mice who spend less time in the center of the open field test are coded as more anxious [73]. Beta Carboline FG-7142. The beta carboline class of molecules acts as an inverse agonists on the benzodiazepine site of GABA-A receptors[74]. Inverse agonists as a class are convulsant or pro-convulsant and have shown anxiogenic properties by self report [74]. FG-7142 (N-methyl-b-carboline-3-carboxamide) is a partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptors that causes anxiety in both humans[75] and mice[69], has kindling effects [74], upregulates adrenoreceptors, and decreases subsequent actions of GABA and beta carboline agonists [72]. The molecule is not selective, but does have higher affinity for the ? ±1 subunit-containing GABA-A receptor than other ? ± subunits [75, 76] . FG-7142 has several effects on the brain, including activating of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, related to attention and vigilance, and activation of mesolimbocortical dopamine output to the PFC leading to increased sensory drive output from the BLA [72, 77-79]. While FG-7142 is a convulsant as well as an anxiogenic, the dose required for anxiogenic purposes is lower than that required for convulsive purposes, allowing for usefulness for experimental induction of anxiety sans convulsions [69]. In the elevated plus maze, FG-7142 decreases the amount of time spent in open arms [69, 72], and its anxiogenic action may be mediated by the 3 subunit of the GABA-A receptor [72]. Fluoxetine. In clinical populations, chronic SSRI treatment is useful for the treatment of anxiety and depression, but has been shown to paradoxically increase anxiety and depression upon acute treatment [80, 81]. The treatment lag and anxiogenic effect of SSRIs in the acute phase may contribute to treatment noncompliance[81]. In preclinical animal research populations, namely mice and rats, fluoxetine, an SSRI that acts as a selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor [71, 82-84], has been shown to increase anxiety related behaviors in the EPM[85-87], open field test [71], light/dark test [71], the free exploration test [85] and will also potentiate defensive behaviors[84]. In C57Bl/6J mice specifically, fluoxetine has been shown to be anxiogenic in the EPM at a concentration of 20 mg/kg [70, 88]. Methods Subjects Subjects were adult male C57BL/6J mice, purchased from Jackson Labs. The mice were housed in groups of 5 per cage, housed in a humidity and temperature controlled environment, with a standard 12h light/dark cycle where lights are on at 7 am. Water and food were available ad libitum. In the testing of FG-7142 and fluoxetine in the EPM, mice weighed between 20-35 g and were 9 weeks at the time of Elevated Plus Maze testing. All mice were nave to the EPM. In the testing of fluoxetine in the home cage, mice were implanted at 9 weeks, and were tested at 11 weeks in the home cage. Studies were conducted with approved protocols from Duke University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and were in accordance with the NIH guidelines for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Drugs FG-7142 was suspended in physiological (0.9%) saline containing 3% Tween 80 and injected i.p. at 10 mg/kg [69]. Fluoxetine HCl (Sigma-Aldrich, USA) was dissolved in physiological saline and injected i.p. at 20mg/kg [70]. Apparatus The elevated plus maze apparatus has black plexiglass walls and flooring, with white tape on the floor of the arms. There are no walls on the open arms, but cm of tape is on the edges to prevent mice from falling off the arms. The maze is mounted in a plexiglass pedestal on the floor and is 40 cm tall with 305.08 cm arms; walls on closed arms are 15.25 cm high. General Procedure of the EPM All experiments were conducted during the mouse light phase. Mice were habituated to handling and injection for 7 days prior to testing, with either saline for 5 days and vehicle for 2 days (FG-7142) or saline for 7 days (Fluoxetine). Treatment conditions were randomly assigned, and the experimenter was blind to treatment. Mice were tested in order of cage and mouse number. Light intensity was low light (50 lux) for all experiments. Mice were brought up to the testing room at least one hour before testing to allow for acclimation to the testing environment. After injection, mice were either placed in a new cage (FG-7142) or in the home cage (Fluoxetine) and allowed to acclimate for 30 minutes. In the elevated plus maze, mice were individually placed on the central square, facing a closed arm, and freely allowed to explore for 10 minutes (FG-7142) or 5 minutes (Fluoxetine). Between each mouse, the apparatus was cleaned with Rescue wipes (Virox, Oakville ON). Fluoxetine Injections in Home Cage Mice were handled, injected with saline, and habituated to single housing for 30 minutes after injection for 7 days prior to testing. On the day of testing, mice were habituated to the room for 60 minutes prior to testing, connected to a headstage without anesthesia (Blackrock Microsystems, UT, USA), recorded 5 minutes of baseline LFP activity, injected with fluoxetine, then placed in a separate cage and singly housed. Recordings were initiated immediately, data was used after 30 minutes. Experiment was conducted under low light (50 lux) conditions. LFP data was collected using Cerebus system (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), animals were video recorded using Neuromotive software (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) and analyzed for time spent standing still using Ethovision XT 7.1 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, Netherlands). Open Field Test Open field testing was conducted immediately after completion of home cage fluoxetine recordings 1 hour after fluoxetine injection. Mice were placed in a 17.5 in long x 17.5 inch wide x 11.75 in high chamber for 5 minutes. LFP data was collected using Cerebus system (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT), location of animals was recorded using Neuromotive software (Blackrock Microsystems, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT) and analyzed for time spent in the center using Ethovision XT 7.1 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, Netherlands). Neurophysiological data acquisition Neurophysiological data was acquired at 30kHz using the Cerebus acquisition system (Blackrock Microsystems, UT, USA). LFPs were low pass filtered at 250 Hz, and stored at 1000 Hz. Voltage was measured by comparing data from each wire against a wire within the same brain area that had a SNR 3:1. Electrode implantation surgery Mice were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane, placed in a stereotaxic device, and had screws implanted above the cerebellum and anterior cranium. Bundles were stereotaxically centered based on coordinates measured from bregma (AMY: -1.4mm and 40.86 AP, -2.9mm and 22.91 ML, -3.85 and 8.57 mm DV from the dura; NAc: 1.3 and 45.56 mm AP, -2.25 and 20.91 mm ML, -4.1 and 8.72 mm DV from the dura; PrL: 1.5 and 45.76 mm AP, 0 and 23.16mm ML, -2.25 and 10.57 mm DV from the dura; VTA: -3.4 and 40.86 mm AP, -.25 and 22.91 mm ML, -4.25 and 8.57 mm DV from the dura; VHip: -3.3 and 40.96 mm AP, -3 and 20.16 mm ML, -3.75 and 9.07 mm DV from the dura. Histology was performed on implantation sites after testing was complete to confirm recording sites used for analysis. Behavioral testing was performed when all animals had stable weights, at approximately 1.5 weeks after surgery. Statistical Analyses We ran the Shapiro Wilkes test for normality, the F test for equal variances, and two sample t tests for equal and unequal variances depending on the F test for equal variances. LFPs We used in vivo recording to quantify local field potentials (LFPs). LFP data was analyzed using non-negative matrix factorization, which is predictive of behavior and extrapolate across different subjects. It quantifies spectral power and coherence in certain frequency ranges to identify network level signatures.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Equality Does Not Mean Equity Gay Marriage Rights

Equality Does Not Mean Equity: Gay Marriage Rights Today, is known as a joyous or radiant matter to some but a disgraceful or even a sinful issue to others. Equality and equity are two important terms that are often confused and misused. Both of these terms are used to illustrate justice and creating fairness in societies today, but for some reason, these words are often misunderstood. Equality is known as another meaning for sameness and equal treatment. Equity is known as another meaning for fairness. Everyone gets what they need depending on he or she’s individual needs and history. For example, equity towards people of color in society have been consistently abused and mistreated during the 19th century and years before then throughout history. Back then, it was more difficult for colored people to succeed on the same level as white people. As a result of this history, colored people did not have the same access to opportunities as white people did back then. In today’s society, now homosexual men and women are having to deal with people who disagree with who the love and why. The issues and trials of equality and equity for homosexuals is starting to become a disagreement for majority of society. Therefore, for there to be both equality and and equity within the United states, equity must be established before equality can be reached and attained. In the 20th century, Boykin(1996) says that the debate dealing with r ace and sexual orientation would be mistakenlyShow MoreRelatedGay Marriage Should Be Legal1179 Words   |  5 PagesGAY MARRIAGES Some states such as Iowa legalized gay marriage through the action of judicial interpretation based on the state’s constitutional stipulations while other states such as Vermont legalized gay marriage through legislation initiatives. These cases demonstrate the government is the sole body that can dictate the validity of whatever is to be regarded as a marriage, and in this case gay marriage. 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Overcoming Barriers to Change Free Essays

The research aims to identify barriers that exist in education on the way to changing students’ learning environments in a positive way. The literature review has revealed that current practices often demonstrate new opportunities willingly embraced by teachers. However, in many cases, teachers are not as susceptible to practices that threaten to have negative effect on their customary routines, in particular exemplified by collaborative teaching. We will write a custom essay sample on Overcoming Barriers to Change or any similar topic only for you Order Now Using teacher survey, the study will determine to what degree such reluctance can stand in the way of the teaching innovation. Introduction Teaching collaboration is an idea that has gained prominence in contemporary educational establishments. Although at first a really unusual practice, collaboration in teaching has been shown to deliver great benefits. For educators themselves, â€Å"collegiality breaks the isolation of the classroom and brings career rewards and daily satisfactions† (Inger, 1993). It also helps beginners and experienced professional learn from each other for improved results and relieves young teachers of the trial-and-error process they are usually immersed in. bringing teachers closer together in a coherent effort, collaborative teaching helps foster cooperation and friendliness between teachers. Collaboration can also go beyond the level of a single school, helping extend new methods to other areas. At the same time, collaboration is not always compatible with school culture and practices and character of an individual teacher; hence come barriers to collaborative teaching. A teacher can be resistant to collaboration in general, being averse to any form of joint efforts in the same classroom. On the other hand, the teacher’s attitude can embrace collaboration between vocational and academic teachers or those coming from other schools. Therefore, the research problem is as follows: What obstacles do teachers most often face on the path of innovation in their school curriculum that involves collaborative teaching? The study will be focused on teacher perceptions and aim to find material so as to substantiate improvements in collaborative practices. Literature Review Collaboration can occur at any stage of the educational process. Teaching can engage in joint preparation of materials for the classroom sessions or engage in team teaching, or â€Å"organizational and instructional arrangement in which two or more teachers work in the same classroom† (Price et al, 2000-2001). Thus, in special education teachers can use a variety of models including the resource room, itinerant, and consultation models (Price et al, 2000-2001). In the process of realizing collaboration models, teachers face barriers that have been categorized by Welch and Sheridan (1995) into four main groups: conceptual barriers, pragmatic barriers, attitudinal barriers, and professional barriers. Conceptual barriers are caused by differences in the definition of roles by different educators, their difference in the processing of material, approaches etc. When teachers face challenges in working out the exact schedule or joining resources for joint effort, this is described as a pragmatic barrier. Attitudinal barriers are the result of fear to try a new approach. Professional barriers arise when teachers cannot cooperate on effective methods of problem solving, lacking adequate skills of working together as a team. Teachers can benefit from the administration’s effort to introduce additional measures so as to reduce the possibility of conflict among teachers. For this purpose, it is necessary to introduce concrete rules and procedures that will define the boundaries between their roles and help them establish working relationships. In case of team teaching, â€Å"the problem is getting a balance between enough specificity in prescribing roles so that a bureaucratic rule book is not created† (Price et al, 2000-2001). Most researchers believe that conflict is unavoidable, and therefore strategies for coping with it should be worked out by the administration in advance. A lot depends on the organizational culture as school culture can either stimulate or defy the efforts of teachers to work together. Peterson (2002) identifies two types of culture: cooperative and toxic. Within toxic cultures, individuals are striving to work together for common goals. As a result, teachers can reach effective collaboration more easily than in other organizations. In toxic cultures, on the contrary, individual effort is frustrated because of the lack of common framework. In addition, organizational resources can also be a barrier to innovation that should be represented in teaching communities. Many schools lack adequate programs that can accommodate the participation of two or more teachers. There are even fewer resources available for attracting outside professionals that can participate in collaborative projects. This can serve as a motivator for teachers to desire the continuation of the routines currently present in education. Cooperation between academic and vocational teachers can be prevented by the organizational design of the academic environment in which â€Å"the social and organizational isolation of most vocational teachers is exacerbated by the physical separation and programmatic fragmentation in secondary schools† (Inger, 1993). The difference in their social status further contributes to the rising walls between these two groups of professionals. Since academic teachers generally have a higher status, they tend to marginalize their vocational colleagues, a situation that discourages cooperation. How to cite Overcoming Barriers to Change, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Tragedy of the Commons

The Tragedy of the Commons is an article about population problem resolution. In the first part of the article, Hardin talks about solutions and their context in todays and yesterdays world. He puts the argument of technical and non technical solutions in different contexts and weighs their suitability in different circumstances. Bentham’s rule of â€Å"the greatest good for the greatest number† is also discussed in the first few paragraphs where Hardin explains the two reasons why it cannot be realized. Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Tragedy of the Commons specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He gives the first reason as a mathematical one i.e. two variables cannot be increased at the same time and the second reason as a biological one that dictates that for any life to proceed there must be energy to sustain it; it is not sufficient to do that for the human race with growing population. The writ er then tries to explain the phenomenon of ‘tragedy in commons’ using a simple example of pastoralists sharing a vast pasture. There would be an increase in the number of cattle up to the point when the cattle will start putting too much pressure on the pasture, and then there would be tragedy because each extra head would mean more pressure on the pasture which would eventually lead to conflict and even extinction (McVay 9). This system of selection, the writer explains, is used in many areas of our lives in instances where there are limited resources that are not restricted. A natural means of selection then occurs in the form of overcrowding, queues and so on naturally regulating these struggles and it is put that there is no space (Hardin 15). Hardin then goes on to relate these arguments to pollution and conscience. He brings out the fact that conscience can be used as at tool of regulation but warns that this appeals very differently between different individual s. Carefully looking at the article, Hardin tries to argue about the different means of self regulation. He focuses on general people regulation, pollution and even legislation. In my opinion Hardin simply wanted to bring out the different ways of regulation yet with a little touch of humor. He explains that even if a population does not necessarily plan on regulating itself, it is still bound to do so naturally in an order he refers to as the commons (Lloyd 82). Advertising Looking for essay on anthropology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More He even refers to Charles Darwin as he explains these points although later in the article he drastically changes his views in a display of contrast in his writing. In his view, everything from politics to basic human processes like breeding can be regulated by as simple a process as appealing to the human conscience in the short term (Smith 428). There is a lot of contradiction in Hardinâ €™s article though; he goes ahead to warn that use of conscience may be appealing in the short term but may eventually be perceived differently by the people depending on their reflections and inner beliefs (Lack 29).The need for recognition and mutual agreement has also been brought out as necessary towards the end of the article. In conclusion, Hardin writes that perhaps a simple answer to these population problems is the use of need for necessity and mutual agreement. While accepting that mutual agreement does not mean that everyone would be most comfortable with the resolution. It is perhaps the best way to deal with population problems. The commons is only viable and agreeable in instances of very low populations with excess resources where competition and destruction is still many years away. The Commons system encourages wastage and irresponsibility even in small societies and should not be adopted in modern society. Works Cited Hardin, Garret.â€Å"Journal of Heredity. † Science 50(1959):15-20 Lack, Dave The Natural Regulation of Animal Numbers. England :Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1954. Lloyd, Willie. Two Lectures on the Checks to Population. England: Oxford University Press, 1833.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Tragedy of the Commons specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More McVay,Salome.† Scientific American.† Science13 (1966):5-20 Smith, Arnie. The Wealth of Nations. New York:NEW LIB, 1937 This essay on The Tragedy of the Commons was written and submitted by user Dull Swan to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.